|CN Tower engineer visits Seneca|
|Jamil Mardukhi, one of the structural engineers who designed the CN Tower in the 1970s, visited Seneca recently to speak with students in the School of Civil Engineering Technology. Now a vice-president at NCK Engineering Ltd., Mr. Mardukhi discussed the construction, engineering and the current revitalization of Toronto's tallest and most defining landmark.
Jamil Mardukhi with Changiz Sadr, Chair, Willowdale-Thornhill Professional Engineers Ontario Chapter and Professor Nanda Lwin, School of Civil Engineering Technology.
Traditional bronze is a copper alloy with up to 10% tin. The tin in bronze makes it more resistant to wear than unalloyed copper. Bronzes today are usually stronger and more resistant to corrosion than brass.
Contemporary bronzes are typically copper alloys that may contain silicon, manganese, aluminium, lead, iron and other elements, with or without tin.
The variations in bronze composition significantly affect its characteristics. Wearability, machinability, corrosion-resistance and ductility for deep drawing are often considered.
Bronze parts are typically used for bearings, clips, electrical connectors and springs. The Evans Company can stamp and deep draw from these alloys cost effectively, using high speed transfer and progressive presses.
Combro, or commercial bronze, is 90-10, or 90% copper/10% tin. It is frequently the least expensive, most easily obtained grade of bronze.
Aluminium bronze is a copper-aluminium alloy that may contain iron, nickel, and/or silicon for greater strength. It is used for tools and, because it will not spark when struck, for parts to be used around flammable materials. Aluminium bronze is frequently used for aircraft and automobile engine parts.
Manganese bronze is actually a brass containing manganese. It is often used for ship propellers because it is strong and resists saltwater corrosion.
T1 M06 ;
G54 G90 G00 X0 Y0 ;
G43 Z0.1 H1 ;
S500 M03 ;
G51 X1.5 Y1.5 P2.;
M97 P10 ;
G28 G91 Y0 Z0 ;
N10 G00 X1. Y1. ;
G01 Z-0.5 F15. ;
X2. F20. ;
Y2. ; G03 X1. R0.5 ;
G01 Y1. ;
G00 Z0.1 ;
Take geometry shown by dashed line and double the size. Use a different work coordinate as the scaling center.
= Work coordinate origin
= Center of scaling
(Scaling center X1.5 Y1.5)