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Toronto Ontario

—  City  —
City of Toronto

From top left: Scarborough Bluffs


Coat of arms

Nickname(s): T.O., T-Dot, Hogtown, The Queen City, Toronto the Good, The City Within a Park
Motto: Diversity Our Strength

Location of Toronto and its Ontario


Location of Toronto in Canada

Coordinates: 43°42′59.72″N 79°20′26.47″W / 43.7165889°N 79.3406861°W / 43.7165889; -79.340686143.7165889; -79.3406861
Country Canada
Province  Ontario
Districts York
Established August 27, 1793 (as York)
Incorporated March 6, 1834 (as Toronto)
Amalgamated January 1, 1998 (from Metropolitan Toronto)
 • Mayor Rob Ford
 • Council Toronto City Council
 • MPs
 • MPPs
 • City 630 km2 (240 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,749 km2 (675 sq mi)
 • Metro 7,125 km2 (2,751 sq mi)
Elevation 76 m (249 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 2,615,060 (1st)
 • Density 4,149/km2 (10,750/sq mi)
 • Urban 5,132,794 (1st)
 • Metro 5,583,064 (1st)
 • Demonym Torontonian
Time zone UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4)
Postal code span M
Area code(s) 416, 647
NTS Map 030M11
Website www.toronto.ca

Toronto (/tɵˈrɒnt/, locally /ˈtrɒnoʊ/) is the largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto’s history dates back to the late 18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British Crown from the Mississaugas of the New Credit. The settlement was later established as the Town of York and proclaimed as the new capital of Upper Canada by its lieutenant governor, John Graves Simcoe. In 1834, York was incorporated as a city and renamed to its present name. The city was ransacked in the Battle of York during the War of 1812 and damaged in two great fires in 1849 and in 1904. Since its incorporation, Toronto has repeatedly expanded its borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities, most recently in 1998.

The city has 2.6 million residents, according to the [8]

As Canada’s commercial capital, it is home to the [13]



Before 1800

When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name.

French traders founded [17]

In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe chose the town to replace Newark as the capital of Upper Canada,[18] believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans.[19] Fort York was constructed at the entrance of the town’s natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town’s settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street (in the CorktownSt. Lawrence area).


Map of Toronto, 1894

In 1813, as part of the Orange Order significant and long lasting influence over Toronto society.

Toronto was twice for brief periods the capital of the united Province of Canada: first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856–1858 after which Quebec became capital until 1866 (one year before Confederation); since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa.[22] As it had been for Upper Canada from 1793, Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867, the seat of government located at the Ontario Legislature located at Queen’s Park. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House, the residence of the vice-regal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario.

In the 19th century, an extensive sewage system was built, and streets became illuminated with Union Station in downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before which enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent.

Yonge Street in 1900

Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular spirits) centre in North America; the Distillery District, the harbour allowed for sure access of grain and sugar imports used in processing. Expanding port and rail facilities brought in Northern Timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal, industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years.

Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, later renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.[23]

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was quickly rebuilt. The fire caused more than $10 million in damage, and resulted in more stringent fire safety laws and expansion of the city’s fire department.

Union Station can be seen under construction

The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles and immigrants from other Eastern European nations, as the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty type slums, such as “Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country.

Since 1945

V-E Day celebrations on Bay Street, May 1945

Following the Second World War refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived, as well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Following elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. Toronto’s population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and doubled to two million by 1971. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada’s most populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities.[24]

In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto.[25] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development, and it was believed that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than $25 million in damage.[26]

In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the old City of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York. In 1998, the metropolitan government was dissolved by the Provincial Government in the face of vigorous opposition from the smaller component municipalities and all six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, with Mel Lastman as its first mayor (after being mayor of North York). David Miller was the second mayor and Rob Ford is the third and current mayor.

The city celebrated its 175th anniversary on March 6, 2009, since its inception as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the 2015.


A simulated-colour image of Toronto taken by the NASA Landsat 7 satellite in 2004.

Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi),Rouge River and the Scarborough-Pickering Townline to the east.


The city is intersected by three rivers and numerous tributaries: the Prince Edward Viaduct are required to span above the ravines. These deep ravines prove useful for draining the city’s storm sewer system during heavy rains, but some sections, particularly near the Don River are prone to sudden, heavy floods.

During the Eglinton Avenue, 7 to 8 kilometres (4.3 to 5.0 mi) inland.

Much of the current lakeshore land area fronting the Toronto Harbour is artificial landfill filled during the late 19th century. Until then, the lakefront docks (then known as wharves) were set back further inland than today. Much of the adjacent Port Lands are also fill. The Toronto Islands were a natural landspit until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, creating a channel later used by shipping interests to access the docks.


Toronto has a seasonal lag.

Toronto winters sometimes feature short cold snaps where maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by wind chill. Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain can disrupt work and travel schedules, accumulating snow can fall any time from November until mid-April. However, mild stretches with temperatures in the 5 to 12 °C (41 to 54 °F) range and infrequently higher also occur in most winters melting accumulated snow. The summer months are characterized by long stretches of humid weather. Usually in the range from 23 °C (73 °F) to 31 °C (88 °F), daytime temperatures occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity making it feel oppressive during these brief periods of hot weather. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods.

Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. There can be periods of dry weather, but drought-like conditions are rare. The average yearly precipitation is about 830 mm (32.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 133 cm (52 in). Toronto experiences an average of 2,038 sunshine hours, or 44% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 27% in December to 59% in July.[30]


360-degree panorama of Toronto as seen from the Downtown Toronto are visible on the right.


Allen Lambert Galleria in Brookfield Place

Lawrence Richards, a member of the faculty of architecture at the University of Toronto, has said “Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big mix of periods and styles.”[32] Toronto buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the mid-19th century, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the 21st century.

Defining the Toronto skyline is the Burj Khalifa.

Toronto is a city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft).[35]

Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto’s architectural heritage were demolished to make way for redevelopment or, simply, parking. In contrast, since the 2000s, Toronto is experiencing a period of architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened in the last five years. Daniel Libeskind’s Royal Ontario Museum addition, Frank Gehry’s remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop’s distinctive Ontario College of Art & Design expansion are among the city’s new showpieces.[36] The historic Distillery District, located on the eastern edge of downtown has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood.


A group of “The Annex” style houses, a style of house that was popular in Toronto in the late nineteenth century.

The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from that of the skyscrapers in the commercial core. Victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and Yorkville. Wychwood Park is historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto’s earliest planned communities. The Wychwood Park neighbourhood was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation district in 1985. The Casa Loma neighbourhood is named after Casa Loma, a storybook castle built in 1911 complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, secret passages, and a bowling alley. Spadina House is a 19th century manor that is now a museum.

The City of Toronto encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by six separate municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Throughout the city there exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. Former municipalities include York.

Old Toronto

Map of Toronto with major traffic routes. Also shown are the boundaries of six former municipalities, which form the current City of Toronto.

The Old City of Toronto covers the area generally known as downtown, but also older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of downtown. It includes the historic core of Toronto and remains the most densely populated part of the city. The Financial District contains the First Canadian Place, Toronto-Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of St. James (not to be confused with St. James Town to the north), Garden District, St. Lawrence, Corktown, and Church and Wellesley. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northward along Yonge Street. Old Toronto is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Deer Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. East and west of Downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Chinatown, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as communities of artists with studio lofts, with many middle and upper class professionals. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including two Chinatowns, the Greektown area, Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India, along with others.


The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area’s housing is in the process of being replaced or remodelled.

The outer suburbs comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke (west), Scarborough (east) and North York (north) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. Sections were long established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the emergence of Metro Government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s. Upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest “planned communities” was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s.[37] Phased development mixing single-detached housing with higher density apartment blocks became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the late 20th century and early 21st century, North York City Centre, Etobicoke City Centre and Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business districts outside Downtown Toronto. High-rise development in these areas have given the former municipalities distinguishable skylines of their own with high-density transit corridors serving them.


In the earlier industrial era of Toronto, industry became concentrated along the Don River mouth.

The Distillery District contains the largest and best-preserved collection of Victorian industrial architecture in North America. Once an alcohol processing centre, related structures along the Harbour include the Canada Malting Co. grain processing towers and the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Although production of spirits has declined over the decades, Toronto still has a growing microbrewery industry. The District is a national heritage site, it was listed by National Geographic magazine as a “top pick” in Canada for travellers. Similar areas that still retain their post-industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/Mount Dennis and Junction areas still contain factories, meat packing facilities and railyards close to medium density residential.

Beginning in the late 19th century as Toronto sprawled out, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts. Over time, pockets of industrial land mostly followed rail lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This trend continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses have mostly moved to the suburban environs of West Don Lands.

The still mostly vacated Port Lands remain largely undeveloped, apart from a power plant, a shipping container facility and out-of-commission industrial facilities. There are future plans for development, including residential areas under the guidance of Waterfront Toronto.

Public spaces

High Park in Toronto, with Menashe Kadishman‘s Yellow Circles (1967)

Toronto has a diverse array of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking Mel Lastman Square in North York.

There are many large downtown parks, which include Grange Park, Moss Park, Allan Gardens, Little Norway Park, Queen’s Park, Riverdale Park, Trinity Bellwoods Park, Christie Pits, and the Leslie Street Spit, which mainly consists of Tommy Thompson Park and opens on weekends. The Toronto Islands have several acres of park space, accessible from downtown by ferry. Large parks in the outer areas include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guildwood Park, and Rouge Park. An almost hidden park is the compact Cloud Gardens,[38] which has both open areas and a glassed-in greenhouse in downtown Toronto.

Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature popular rinks for public ice-skating. Etobicoke’s Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto’s first skating trail. Centennial Park and Earl Bales Park offer outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a chair lift, rental facilities, and lessons.

urban park. In May 2000, the winning park design was announced: “TREE CITY”, by the team of Bruce Mau Design, Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Oleson Worland Architect and Inside/Outside.

Panoramic view of Nathan Phillips square in 2011.


Toronto theatre and performing arts scene has more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Electronic Ensemble, and the Canadian Stage Company. Notable performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the Toronto Centre for the Arts, the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts (originally the “O’Keefe Centre” and formerly the “Hummingbird Centre”).

Ontario Place features the world’s first permanent IMAX movie theatre, the Cinesphere,[41] as well as the Molson Amphitheatre, an open-air venue for music concerts. As of spring 2012, Ontario Place has closed due to a decrease in attendance over the years. The Molson Amphitheatre and harbour still operate, however the park and Cinesphere are no longer operating.

Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Canada’s Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street.

The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Toronto as of 2011 ranks as the third largest production centre for film and television after Toronto International Film Festival is an annual event celebrating the international film industry.

Toronto’s [47]

One of the largest events in the city, LGBT festivals in the world.


Toronto Eaton Centre is the largest and busiest shopping mall in Toronto.

Royal Ontario Museum is one of Toronto’s leading museums.[48]

The CN Tower is a major tourist attraction in Toronto.

The Spadina House.

The [51]

City shopping area’s include the [52]

Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual “Taste of the Danforth” festival which attracts over one million people in 2½ days.[53] Toronto is also home to Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a prominent Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. Other notable neighbourhoods and attractions include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame.


The Hockey Hall of Fame, housed in a former bank erected in 1885, is located downtown

Toronto is the only Canadian city with representation in seven BMO Field.

Toronto is home to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the National Hockey League‘s Original Six clubs, and has also served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a rich history of hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs’ 13 Stanley Cup titles the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael’s College School-based Ontario Hockey League teams combined have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League also play in Toronto at Ricoh Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs.

The Air Canada Centre.

Toronto FC history.

The Raptors.

The city is represented in the Rogers Centre, in the downtown core.

Toronto was home to the Big East Conference team. Beginning in 2007, the game was played at Rogers Centre annually in January.

Toronto, along with Rogers Cup between the months of July and August. In odd-numbered years, the men’s tournament is held in Montreal, while the women’s tournament is held in Toronto, and vice-versa in even-numbered years.

Besides team sports, the city annually hosted Rexdale.

Historic sports clubs of Toronto include Royal Canadian Yacht Club (established in 1852), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club (established in pre-1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (established in 1872), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club (established in 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (established in 1924).

Toronto was a candidate city for the [56]

Toronto will be hosting the 2015 Pan American Games in July 2015, and the 2015 Parapan American Games in August 2015. It contested against the cities of Lima, Peru and Bogotá, Colombia.[57]

Professional and amateur sports teams in Toronto
Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Toronto Argonauts CFL Football Rogers Centre 1873 16 (Last in 2012)
Toronto Maple Leafs NHL Ice hockey Air Canada Centre 1917 13 (Last in 1967)
Toronto Blue Jays MLB Baseball Rogers Centre 1977 2 (Last in 1993)
Toronto Raptors NBA Basketball Air Canada Centre 1995 0
Toronto FC MLS Soccer BMO Field 2007 0
Toronto Maple Leafs IBL Baseball Christie Pits 1969 8
Toronto Rock NLL Box lacrosse Air Canada Centre 1998 6
Toronto Xtreme RCSL Rugby Fletcher’s Fields 1999 0
Toronto Marlies AHL Ice hockey Ricoh Coliseum 2005 0
Toronto Nationals MLL Field lacrosse Lamport Stadium 2009 1
Toronto City Saints CRL Rugby league Newtonbrook Secondary School 2010 0
Toronto Aeros CWHL Women’s ice hockey Lakeshore Lions Arena 2007 1
Toronto Lady Lynx USL Women’s soccer Centennial Park Stadium 2005 0
Toronto Eagles AFLO Australian Football Humber College North 1989 12


Toronto is Canada’s largest media market,The Grid.

Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks channel drift.


View of Toronto’s Financial District from the CN Tower.

Toronto is an international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the financial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on [12]

The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunication, information technology and film production industries; it is home to Fairmont Hotels and Resorts.

Although much of the region’s manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be a wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city’s strategic position along the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean.

The city’s net debt stood at $4.4 billion as of the end of 2010 and has a AA credit rating.[62]


Developed in the early 1900s, Little Italy is one of the city’s oldest ethnic neighbourhoods.[63]

The city’s population grew by 4% (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, 1% (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006, and 4.3% (111,779 residents) between 2006 and 2011. Persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.5% of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 13.6%. The [69]

According to the [71]

In 2006, people of Roncesvalles.

Christianity is the largest religious group in Toronto. The 2001 Census reports that 33.4% of the city’s population is Catholic, followed by [74]

While English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians, many other languages have considerable numbers of local speakers.[78]


Toronto’s Electoral Wards

Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The Mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 44 councillors representing geographical wards throughout the city. The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. (Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.)

At the start of the 2007 term, the city council will have seven standing committees, each consisting of a Chairman, a vice-chair and four other councillors. The Mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council.[79] An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board.

The city has four community councils that consider local matters. City Council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Each city councillor serves as a member on a community council.

There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.[80]

Toronto had an operating budget of [82]


The low [83]

Toronto recorded its largest number of homicides in 1991 with 89, a rate of 3.9 per 100,000.[97]


University College at the University of Toronto

Toronto is home to a number of post-secondary academic institutions. The University of Toronto, established in 1827, is the oldest university in Ontario and a leading public research institution with two satellite campuses, one of which is located in the city’s eastern district of Scarborough while the other is located in the neighbouring city of Mississauga. It houses North America’s fourth-largest university library system, after those of Harvard, Yale and Berkeley. The Osgoode Hall Law School, affiliated with Toronto’s York University, houses the largest law library in the Commonwealth of Nations. Toronto is also home to Ryerson University, OCAD University, and the University of Guelph-Humber.

There are four diploma and degree granting Sheridan College.

Tyndale University College and Seminary is a transdenominational Christian post-secondary institution and Canada’s largest seminary.

The Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud manages public and Roman Catholic French-language schools. There are also numerous private university-preparatory schools.

The [99]


Health and medicine

Toronto is home to 20 public hospitals, including the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael’s Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, Rouge Valley Health System, The Scarborough Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Hospital, as well as the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine.

Several years ago, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average ER wait times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment.[100]

Toronto’s [103]

Toronto also has some specialized hospitals located outside of the downtown core. These hospitals include Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities.


Toronto’s public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).[23] The backbone of its public transport network is the Toronto subway and RT, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines and a mainly elevated light-metro rapid transit line that runs in Scarborough. The TTC also operates a network of buses and streetcars. There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the Spadina subway extension north of Downsview Station.

The Government of Ontario also operates an interregional rail and bus transit system called [105]

Canada’s busiest airport, Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory.

There are a number of municipal Allen Road.

The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft (2.0 km) apart. Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north-south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines.

International relations

Partnership cities[109]
Friendship cities[109]

See also


  1. ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3520&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All.
  2. ^ “(Code 535) Census Profile”. 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMA&Code1=535&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&Data=Count&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All.
  3. ^ “Population and dwelling counts, for population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses”. Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Population. February 8, 2011. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/hlt-fst/pd-pl/Table-Tableau.cfm?LANG=Eng&T=702&PR=35&S=51&O=A&RPP=25. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  4. ^ 1-74089-317-4.
  5. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070311043934/http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/policy/fed-prov/can-ont-toronto-mou.html. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  6. ^ “City of Toronto, Ontario”. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20070929162756/http://allabout-toronto.com/. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
  7. ^ “Vancouver is ‘best city to live'”. CNN. October 5, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/europe/10/04/eui.survey/index.html. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
  8. ^ Mercer Human Resource Consulting (2006). “Mercer 2006 Quality of Living Survey” (PDF). http://www.mercerhr.com/attachment.dyn?idContent=1216315&filePath=/attachments/English/QOL_Survey2006_table.pdf. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
  9. ^ http://www.fraserinstitute.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=2520
  10. ^ What makes a global city?“, (2007)
  11. ^ Citymayors.com, Toronto Star (2004). Retrieved on July 8, 2007.
  12. ^ dead link]. Retrieved on March 1, 2007.
  13. dead link]
  14. ^ See R. F. Williamson, ed., Toronto: An Illustrated History of its First 12,000 Years (Toronto: James Lorimer, 2008), ch. 2, with reference to the Mantle Site.
  15. ^ “The real story of how Toronto got its name”. Natural Resources Canada (2005). http://geonames.nrcan.gc.ca/education/toronto_e.php. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  16. ^ Fort Rouillé, Jarvis Collegiate Institute (2006). Retrieved on December 8, 2006.
  17. ^ Natives and newcomers, 1600–1793, City of Toronto (2006). Retrieved on December 8, 2006.
  18. dead link]
  19. ^ “Welcome to the birthplace of Toronto”. Friends of Fort York (2006). http://www.fortyork.ca. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  20. ^ “Battle of York”. Archived from the original on August 20, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070820093114/http://www.udata.com/users/hsbaker/york.htm. Retrieved July 10, 2007.
  21. ^ Black history at the City of Toronto Archives, City of Toronto (2009). Retrieved on March 13, 2009.
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