In traffic engineering, where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid.
Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from temperature, as functions of space and time.
Historically, hydrodynamics meant something different than it does today. Before the twentieth century, hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics, like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability—both also applicable in, as well as being applied to, gases.
 Equations of fluid dynamics
The foundational axioms of fluid dynamics are the Reynolds Transport Theorem.
In addition to the above, fluids are assumed to obey the continuum assumption. Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects. However, the continuum assumption considers fluids to be continuous, rather than discrete. Consequently, properties such as density, pressure, temperature, and velocity are taken to be well-defined at infinitesimally small points, and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another. The fact that the fluid is made up of discrete molecules is ignored.
For fluids which are sufficiently dense to be a continuum, do not contain ionized species, and have velocities small in relation to the speed of light, the momentum equations for Computational Fluid Dynamics. The equations can be simplified in a number of ways, all of which make them easier to solve. Some of them allow appropriate fluid dynamics problems to be solved in closed form.
In addition to the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, a perfect gas equation of state:
where p is temperature.
 Compressible vs incompressible flow
All fluids are compressible flow equations must be used.
Mathematically, incompressibility is expressed by saying that the density ρ of a fluid parcel does not change as it moves in the flow field, i.e.,
where D/Dt is the convective derivatives. This additional constraint simplifies the governing equations, especially in the case when the fluid has a uniform density.
For flow of gases, to determine whether to use compressible or incompressible fluid dynamics, the sound waves are compression waves involving changes in pressure and density of the medium through which they propagate.
 Viscous vs inviscid flow
Viscous problems are those in which fluid friction has significant effects on the fluid motion.
The Reynolds number, which is a ratio between inertial and viscous forces, can be used to evaluate whether viscous or inviscid equations are appropriate to the problem.
Stokes flow is flow at very low Reynolds numbers, Re<<1, such that inertial forces can be neglected compared to viscous forces.
On the contrary, high Reynolds numbers indicate that the inertial forces are more significant than the viscous (friction) forces. Therefore, we may assume the flow to be an viscosity completely, compared to inertial terms.
This idea can work fairly well when the Reynolds number is high. However, certain problems such as those involving solid boundaries, may require that the viscosity be included. Viscosity often cannot be neglected near solid boundaries because the boundary layer equations, which incorporates viscosity, in a region close to the body.
The Euler equations can be integrated along a streamline to get potential flows.
 Steady vs unsteady flow
When all the time derivatives of a flow field vanish, the flow is considered to be a steady flow. Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at a point in the system do not change over time. Otherwise, flow is called unsteady. Whether a particular flow is steady or unsteady, can depend on the chosen sphere is steady in the frame of reference that is stationary with respect to the sphere. In a frame of reference that is stationary with respect to a background flow, the flow is unsteady.
The random field U(x,t) is statistically stationary if all statistics are invariant under a shift in time.
This roughly means that all statistical properties are constant in time. Often, the mean field is the object of interest, and this is constant too in a statistically stationary flow.
Steady flows are often more tractable than otherwise similar unsteady flows. The governing equations of a steady problem have one dimension fewer (time) than the governing equations of the same problem without taking advantage of the steadiness of the flow field.
 Laminar vs turbulent flow
average component and a perturbation component.
It is believed that turbulent flows can be described well through the use of the Navier–Stokes equations. Direct numerical simulation (DNS), based on the Navier–Stokes equations, makes it possible to simulate turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds numbers. Restrictions depend on the power of the computer used and the efficiency of the solution algorithm. The results of DNS have been found to agree well with experimental data for some flows.
Most flows of interest have Reynolds numbers much too high for DNS to be a viable option,detached eddy simulation (DES)—which is a combination of RANS turbulence modeling and large eddy simulation.
 Newtonian vs non-Newtonian fluids
Sir viscosity, which depends on the specific fluid.
However, some of the other materials, such as emulsions and slurries and some visco-elastic materials (e.g. rheology.
 Subsonic vs transonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows
While many terrestrial flows (e.g. flow of water through a pipe) occur at low mach numbers, many flows of practical interest (e.g. in aerodynamics) occur at high fractions of the Mach Number M=1 or in excess of it (supersonic flows). New phenomena occur at these Mach number regimes (e.g. shock waves for supersonic flow, transonic instability in a regime of flows with M nearly equal to 1, non-equilibrium chemical behavior due to ionization in hypersonic flows) and it is necessary to treat each of these flow regimes separately.
Magnetohydrodynamics is the multi-disciplinary study of the flow of electrically conducting fluids in electromagnetic fields. Examples of such fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water. The fluid flow equations are solved simultaneously with Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism.
 Other approximations
There are a large number of other possible approximations to fluid dynamic problems. Some of the more commonly used are listed below.
- The convection problems where density changes are small.
- aspect ratio of the domain to show that certain terms in the equations are small and so can be neglected.
- Slender-body theory is a methodology used in Stokes flow problems to estimate the force on, or flow field around, a long slender object in a viscous fluid.
- The gradients are small.
- The slopes.
- porous media, and works with variables averaged over several pore-widths.
- In rotating systems, the quasi-geostrophic approximation assumes an almost perfect balance between pressure gradients and the Coriolis force. It is useful in the study of atmospheric dynamics.
 Terminology in fluid dynamics
The concept of measured using an aneroid, Bourdon tube, mercury column, or various other methods.
Some of the terminology that is necessary in the study of fluid dynamics is not found in other similar areas of study. In particular, some of the terminology used in fluid dynamics is not used in fluid statics.
 Terminology in incompressible fluid dynamics
The concepts of total pressure and pressure and can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field.
In Aerodynamics, L.J. Clancy writes: To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures, the actual pressure of the fluid, which is associated not with its motion but with its state, is often referred to as the static pressure, but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this static pressure.
A point in a fluid flow where the flow has come to rest (i.e. speed is equal to zero adjacent to some solid body immersed in the fluid flow) is of special significance. It is of such importance that it is given a special name—a stagnation pressure. In incompressible flows, the stagnation pressure at a stagnation point is equal to the total pressure throughout the flow field.
 Terminology in compressible fluid dynamics
In a compressible fluid, such as air, the temperature and density are essential when determining the state of the fluid. In addition to the concept of total pressure (also known as stagnation pressure), the concepts of total (or stagnation) temperature and total (or stagnation) density are also essential in any study of compressible fluid flows. To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to temperature and density, many authors use the terms static temperature and static density. Static temperature is identical to temperature; and static density is identical to density; and both can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field.
The temperature and density at a stagnation point are called stagnation temperature and stagnation density.
A similar approach is also taken with the thermodynamic properties of compressible fluids. Many authors use the terms total (or stagnation) isentropically bringing the fluid to rest, the total (or stagnation) entropy is by definition always equal to the “static” entropy.
 See also
 Fields of study
 Mathematical equations and concepts
- Airy wave theory
- Bernoulli’s equation
- Reynolds transport theorem
- Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation
- Boussinesq approximation (buoyancy)
- Boussinesq approximation (water waves)
- Conservation laws
- Euler equations (fluid dynamics)
- Darcy’s law
- Dynamic pressure
- Fluid statics
- Hagen–Poiseuille equation
- Helmholtz’s theorems
- Kirchhoff equations
- Knudsen equation
- Manning equation
- Mild-slope equation
- Morison equation
- Navier–Stokes equations
- Oseen flow
- Pascal’s law
- Poiseuille’s law
- Potential flow
- Static pressure
- Pressure head
- Relativistic Euler equations
- Reynolds decomposition
- Stokes flow
- Stokes stream function
- Stream function
- Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines
 Types of fluid flow
 Fluid properties
 Fluid phenomena
 Fluid dynamics journals
- Annual Reviews in Fluid Mechanics
- Journal of Fluid Mechanics
- Physics of Fluids
- Experiments in Fluids
- European Journal of Mechanics B: Fluids
- Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Computers and Fluids
- International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids
- Flow, Turbulence and Combustion
- Acheson, D. J. (1990). Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-859679-0.
- Batchelor, G. K. (1967). An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66396-2.
- Chanson, H. (2009). Applied Hydrodynamics: An Introduction to Ideal and Real Fluid Flows. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Leiden, The Netherlands, 478 pages. ISBN 978-0-415-49271-3.
- Clancy, L. J. (1975). Aerodynamics. London: Pitman Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-273-01120-0.
- Falkovich, G. (2011). Fluid Mechanics, a short course for physicists. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00575-4.
- Lamb, Horace (1994). Hydrodynamics (6th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45868-4. Originally published in 1879, the 6th extended edition appeared first in 1932.
- Landau, L. D.; Lifshitz, E. M. (1987). Fluid Mechanics. Course of Theoretical Physics (2nd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-7506-2767-0.
- Milne-Thompson, L. M. (1968). Theoretical Hydrodynamics (5th ed.). Macmillan. Originally published in 1938.
- Pope, Stephen B. (2000). Turbulent Flows. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59886-9.
- Shinbrot, M. (1973). Lectures on Fluid Mechanics. Gordon and Breach. ISBN 0-677-01710-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fluid dynamics|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fluid mechanics|
- eFluids, containing several galleries of fluid motion
- National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films (NCFMF), containing films on several subjects in fluid dynamics (in RealMedia format)
- List of Fluid Dynamics books